Volume 6, Issue 3, September 2020, Page: 27-34
Field Assessment of Influence of Organic Fertilizers on Microbial Profile and Sustainable Maize Production in a Flood Plain in Nigeria
Christiana Utibe Etuk, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, University of Uyo, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria
Matthew Albert Ekpo, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, University of Uyo, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria
Received: May 15, 2020;       Accepted: Jun. 2, 2020;       Published: Jul. 17, 2020
DOI: 10.11648/j.fem.20200603.11      View  177      Downloads  47
The stabilization and utilization of organic fertilizers in flood plain for sustainable agriculture in the tropics was studied in field experiment conducted at Etinan wetland soil (EW) of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria in the tropics during two cropping seasons (C. S.) to study the effects of two composted and stabilized organic fertilizers (poultry droppings, PD and cow dung, CD) on the microbial density and structure, soil properties, growth and yield of corn (Zea mays) according to standard procedures. The two treatments plus control, (the unfertilized plots) were arranged in a randomized block design with two replications giving three main plots; poultry manured plots (PM), cow manured plots (CM) and the control plots, C, which were sectioned into nine subplots on which was a total of 81 mounds on the study site. Results showed that PD and CD (450 gm2=4500 kgha-1) incorporated into the EW produced higher mean microbial density (Total heterotrophic bacterial counts, THBC=log 7.636 and 8.64, total actinomycetes counts, TAC=log 6.57& 6.62, diazotrophic bacterial counts, DBC=log 5.35 & 5.50 and total fungal counts, TFC=log 5.38 & 5.45 cfug-1) in both fertilized plots during the 1 st & 2nd C. S respectively than in the control with 6.62 & 7.49, 5.59 & 5.52, 5.44 & 5.54, 4.5 & 5.49 cfug-1 of THBC, TAC, DBC and TFC respectively. It was also shown that PD and CD application into EW produced higher physicochemical properties, nutrient salts, compared to the C. Growth/yield of the test crop, Zea mays were increased in the PM followed by CM compared to C in the EW during both C. S. Using the mean difference of two years, plants of PM had highest grain yield (4.16±0.16t t/acre) compared to (2.84±0.31t/acre) and (0.09±0.23t/acre) of CM and C respectively. The effects of one time application of the organic fertilizers (without reapplication on the 2nd C. S) indicated higher crop harvest index, H. I. (0.63 and 0.64) of treatment plots compared to 0.19 and 0.20 of the C. Therefore, utilization of PM to soils is recommended for sustainable crop production especially maize in the flood plain and in the tropics as a whole. It is also recommended that the CD could serve as a suitable substitute in the absence of PD. Wetland soils in the tropics should be converted from the hitherto wasteland to useful and sustainable arable lands with the utilization of stabilized and composted organic fertilizers.
Organic Fertilizers, Maize Plant, Sustainable Production, Heterotrophic Bacteria, Flood Plain
To cite this article
Christiana Utibe Etuk, Matthew Albert Ekpo, Field Assessment of Influence of Organic Fertilizers on Microbial Profile and Sustainable Maize Production in a Flood Plain in Nigeria, Frontiers in Environmental Microbiology. Vol. 6, No. 3, 2020, pp. 27-34. doi: 10.11648/j.fem.20200603.11
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