Volume 6, Issue 2, June 2020, Page: 11-17
Evaluation of Different Salts and Heavy Metal Concentrations on Bacterial Biofilm from Selected Surface and Borehole Water Samples
Dibua Nwamaka Anthonia, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University, Uli, Nigeria
Chukwura Edna Ifeoma, Department of Applied Microbiology and Brewing, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria
Chude Charles Onuora, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University, Uli, Nigeria
Received: Feb. 28, 2020;       Accepted: Mar. 20, 2020;       Published: Apr. 23, 2020
DOI: 10.11648/j.fem.20200602.11      View  330      Downloads  80
Abstract
Biofilms in drinking water systems can serve as significant environmental reservoirs for pathogenic bacteria associated with gastro-enteric diseases. The evaluation of the effects of different salts and metal concentrations on bacterial biofilm from surface and borehole water samples was conducted. Water samples were collected, from 10 selected water sources of economic importance, aseptically using sterile containers. The physicochemical properties were investigated before the biofilm generation process. The collected water samples were allowed to stand in a secluded environment for four (4) weeks at 27°C±2°C for biofilm generation. The isolates were characterized culturally, morphologically, biochemically and molecularly. The isolates were identified as Stenotrophomonas pavanii, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Chromobacterium violaceum, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It was observed that the isolates exhibited growth at a wide range of temperature, salts, pH, and metal salt concentrations. To determine the metal tolerance of the isolates, different concentrations (0.05, 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0%) of four metal salts; ferrous chloride (FeCl2), zinc chloride (ZnCl2), calcium chloride (CaCl2), and magnesium oxide (MgO) was used in nutrient broth. Their ability to grow in medium containing different salt (NaCl) concentrations was also evaluated. Different concentrations of NaCl ranging from 2.0% to 10.0% were used in nutrient broth seeded with 0.1ml of the inocula and incubated at 37°C for 48 and 24hours respectively. Growth was measured in terms of OD at 660 nm using spectrophotometer. Results showed a decline in the growth of the isolates with percentage increase in concentrations of all the metal salts. The result of the effect of NaCl salt on growth showed a decrease in growth with an increase in NaCl concentration from 2% to 10%. For Stenotrophomonas pavanii, FeCl2 is negatively correlated with pH r=-.998 but there is positive correlation between CaCl2 and NaCl with r=889.
Keywords
Biofilms, Isolates, Metals, Salts
To cite this article
Dibua Nwamaka Anthonia, Chukwura Edna Ifeoma, Chude Charles Onuora, Evaluation of Different Salts and Heavy Metal Concentrations on Bacterial Biofilm from Selected Surface and Borehole Water Samples, Frontiers in Environmental Microbiology. Vol. 6, No. 2, 2020, pp. 11-17. doi: 10.11648/j.fem.20200602.11
Copyright
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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