Frontiers in Environmental Microbiology

Submit a Manuscript

Publishing with us to make your research visible to the widest possible audience.

Propose a Special Issue

Building a community of authors and readers to discuss the latest research and develop new ideas.

Research Article |

Enhancements of Residual Soil Properties Using Vermicompost and Inoculant Strains in Low-Fertility Sandy Soil

In Ethiopia soil fertility and productivity has been decline due to excessive use of chemical fertilizer, top soil erosion and organic matter depletion. This laboratory and greenhouse study was conducted to isolate effective rhizobium strain and vermicompost rate to improve the crop yield and soil properties. It was carried out using Dosha variety in 2020 to 2021. The factorial combination of three rhizobium strains (non-inoculated, RS-17 and RS-1035) and four rates of vermicompost (0, 5, 10 and 15 ton ha-1) treatments were arranged in complete randomized design (CRD) with three replications. The result showed that rhizobium strains and vermicompost rate had brought significant (p<0.05) influence on the biological and chemical properties of soils. Sole application of maximum rate of vermicompost (15 ton ha-1) and rhizobium strain with RS-17 and RS-1035 significantly improve total number of microbial community. The crop inoculated by RS-17 responded the maximum number of rhizobium bacteria. Sole and combined application of 15 ton ha-1vermicompost with RS-1035 or RS-17 strains produced large sized, deep red and fast growing rhizobium bacteria. On the other hand, the treatment that received combined RS-17and 15 ton ha-1vermicompost was significantly improved soil’s pH by 6.2%, organic carbon (37.5%), available P (13.2%) and total N (1.5%) as compared with the control treatment. Moreover, it had the maximum microbial population (1.33×108cfu/g) and out of this 7.6×105cfu/g rhizobia population. However, to forward a compressive recommendation the experiment should be supported by field studies on different area soils.

Soil Fertility, Chemical Fertilizers, Organic Matter, Rhizobium Strain, Vermicompost

APA Style

Gezahagn Goshu Abate. (2023). Enhancements of Residual Soil Properties Using Vermicompost and Inoculant Strains in Low-Fertility Sandy Soil . Frontiers in Environmental Microbiology, 9(2), 24-33.

ACS Style

Gezahagn Goshu Abate. Enhancements of Residual Soil Properties Using Vermicompost and Inoculant Strains in Low-Fertility Sandy Soil . Front. Environ. Microbiol. 2023, 9(2), 24-33. doi: 10.11648/j.fem.20230902.12

AMA Style

Gezahagn Goshu Abate. Enhancements of Residual Soil Properties Using Vermicompost and Inoculant Strains in Low-Fertility Sandy Soil . Front Environ Microbiol. 2023;9(2):24-33. doi: 10.11648/j.fem.20230902.12

Copyright © 2023 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

1. Adissie. S., Adgo. E and Feyisa. T. 2020. Effect of rhizobial inoculants and micronutrients on yield and yield components of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) on vertisol of Wereillu district, South Wollo, Ethiopia. Cogent Food & Agriculture, Vol. 6 (1): 18. From
2. Ambrosini. A., Souza. R and Passaglia. L. M. P. 2016. Ecological role of bacterial inoculants and their potential impact on soil microbial diversity. Journal of Plant and Soil. DOI: 10.1007/s11104-015-2727-7.
3. Awlachew and Woldemariam. 2018. Diversity and Symbiotic Effectiveness of Rhizobium Isolates Collected from Different Faba bean (Vicia faba) Growing Areas of North and South Gondar, Ethiopia, African Journal of Microbiology Research. Vol. 12 (45), pp. 1012-1019.
4. Azarmi. R., Giglou. M. T and Taleshmikail. R. D. 2008. Influence of vermicompost on soil chemical and physical properties in tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) field. African Journal of Biotechnology. Vol. 7 (14), pp. 2397-2401. DOI: 10.5897/AJB08.378.
5. Bambara. S and P. A. Ndakidemi. 2010. Changes in selected soil chemical properties in the rhizosphere of Phaseolus vulgaris L. supplied with Rhizobium inoculants, molybdenum and lime. Scientific Research and Essays. Vol. 5 (7): pp. 679-684.
6. Bashour I. I. 2007. Methods of Analysis for Soils of Arid and Semi-Arid Regions. In Rural Integrated Development of the Mountains of Northern Lebanon. FAO Report to Ministry of Agriculture, Beirut, Lebanon. Pp 128.
7. Bayou. B. A., Nana. E. M, Vincent. L and Demelash. K. H. 2021. Legume-rhizobium specificity effect on nodulation, biomass production and partitioning of faba bean (Vicia faba L.). Scientific Report: from;
8. Belay. Z and Assefa. F. 2011. Symbiotic and phenotypic diversity of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae from Northern Gondar, Ethiopia. African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 10 (21), pp. 4372-4379.
9. Bingham, F. T. 1982. Boron, in A. L. Page, Ed., Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 2, Chemical and Microbiological Properties, 2nd ed., American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI, 431–447.
10. Broz. A. P. Verma. P. O and Appel. C. 2016. Nitrogen Dynamics of Vermicompost Use in Sustainable Agriculture. Journal of Soil Science and Environment Management. Vol. 7 (11), pp. 173-183.
11. Datt. N., Dubey. Y. P, and Chaudhary. R. 2013. Studies on impact of organic, inorganic and integrated use of nutrients on symbiotic parameters, yield, and quality of French-bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) vis-à-vis soil properties of an acid alfisol. African journal of agricultural research. Vol. 8 (22): pp. 2645-2654.
12. Day, P. R. 1965. Particle fractionation and particle-size analysis, in C. A. Black, Ed., Methods of Soil Analysis, American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI, 545–567.
13. EIAR (Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research). 2018. Faba bean Production Guideline Useing Rhizobial Bio-fertilizer Technology. Adiss Abeba, Ethiopia. From:
14. Getachew. A, Bekele. T and Tesfaye. A. 2005. Phosphorus Fertiliser and Farmyard Manure Effects on the Growth and Yield of Faba Bean and Some Soil Chemical Properties in an Acidic Nitisols of the Central Highlands of Ethiopia. Ethiopian Journal of Natural Resources. Vol. 7 (1): pp. 23-39.
15. Gomez, K. and Gomez, A. 1984. Statistical Procedures for Agricultural Research. 2nd Ed. John Wily and Sons, New York.
16. Hasan, M. 2018. Effect of Rhizobium Inoculation with Phosphorus and Nitrogen Fertilizer on Physico-Chemical Properties of the Groundnut Soil. Environment & Ecosystem Science Vol. 2 (1): 6. From:
17. Havlin J. L., Beaton J. D., Tisdale S. L. and Nelson W. L. 1999. Soil Fertility and Fertilizers Prentice Hall, New Jersely. pp. 345-355.
18. Ilker. U and Ismail. E. T. 2014. Short-Term Effect of Vermicompost Application on Biological Properties of an Alkaline Soil with High Lime Content from Mediterranean Region of Turkey. The Scientific World Journal.
19. Jackson, M. L. 1962. Soil chemical analysis. New Delhi, Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd.
20. Jordan. D. C. 1984. Family III. Rhizobiaceae. In: Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, (Krieg NR, Holt JG eds). The Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore 1: 234-254.
21. Karmakar. S, Brahmachari. K and Gangopadhyay. A. 2013. Studies on agricultural waste management through preparation and utilization of organic manures for maintaining soil quality. African Journal of Agricultural Research: Vol. 8 (48), pp. 6351-6358. from: DOI: 10.5897/AJAR2013.7308.
22. Landon. J. R. 1991. Booker tropical soil manual, a handbook for soil survey and agricultural land evaluation in the tropics and sub tropics. Longman Scientific and Technical, New York.
23. Manivannan. S, Balamurugan. M, Parthasarathi. K, Gunasekaran. G and Ranganathan. L. S. 2009. Effect of vermicompost on soil fertility and crop productivity - beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). J. Environ. Biol. Vol. 30 (2), pp. 275-281.
24. Metwali. E. M. R., Abdelmoneim, T. S., Bakheit, M. A., and Kadasa, N. M. S. 2015. Alleviation of salinity stress in faba bean (Vicia faba L.) plants by inoculation with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). Plant Omics 8, 449–460.
25. Norris, D. O. and Date, R. A. 1976. Legume bacteriology in tropical pasture research principles and methods. C. A. B. (Comm. W. Bur. Past. Field Crops Hurl. Berks. Bull.), 51: 134–174.
26. Olsen, S. R., Cole, C. V., Watanabe, F. S. & Dean, L. A. 1954. Estimation of available phosphorus in soils by extraction with sodium bicarbonate. Circ. U.S. Dep. Agric. 939.
27. Pathma. J and Sakthivel. N. 2012. Microbial diversity of vermicompost bacteria that exhibit useful agricultural traits and waste management potential, from:
28. Peck, T. R. 1983. Measurement of pH and electrode selection, in Proceedings Ninth Soil-Plant Analyst’s Workshop, Council on Soil Testing and Plant Analysis, Athens, GA.
29. Rabiul. I, Abu. S. I, Golam. M, Ekhlas. U, Shahriar. M, Shaharuq. N. S, Firoz. A. 2020 Isolation, Identification and Characterization of Rhizobium species from soil of Cicer arietinum field of faridpur in Bangladesh. International Journal of Current Research. Vol. 12, (4): pp. 10322-10325.
30. Rebika. T and Nongmaithem. N. 2019. Effect of Rhizobium Inoculation on Yield and Nodule Formation of Cowpea. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences. Vol. 8 (11), pp. 134-139.
31. Sharma. R, and Verma. M. L. 2011. Effect of Rhizobium, Farm Yard Manure and Chemical Fertilizers on Sustainable Production and Profitability of Rajmash (Phaseolus Vulgaris L.) and Soil Fertility in Dry Temperate Region of North- Western Himalayas, Legume Research. Vol. 34 (4), pp: 251–258.
32. Siczek. A. and Lipiec. J. 2016. Impact of Faba Bean-Seed Rhizobial Inoculation on Microbial Activity in the Rhizosphere Soil during Growing Season. International journal of molecular science. Vol. 17 (5): 784.
33. Tekalign. T. 1991. Soil, plant, water, fertilizer, animal manure and compost analysis. Working document No. 13. ILCA, Addis Ababa.
34. Toth, S. J. and Prince, A. L. 1949. Estimation of cation exchange capacity and exchangeable Ca, K and Na contents of soils by flamephotometric techniques. Soil Sci., 67: 439–445.
35. Trabelsi. D and Mhamdi. R 2013. Microbial Inoculants and Their Impact on Soil Microbia Communities: A Review. From:
36. Vincent. J. M. 1970. A Manual for the Practical Study of Root Nodule Bacteria. Blackwell, Oxford and Edinburgh, p. 164.
37. Wagner. S. C. 2011. "Biological Nitrogen Fixation". Nature Education Knowledge. Vol. 3 (10): 15.
38. Walkley. A. and Black, C. 1934. An examination of different methods for determining soil organic matter and the proposed modification by the chromic acid titration method. Soil Science, 37: pp 29-38.
39. Woubshet. D., Kidanu. S and Raghavaiah. C. V. 2017. Productivity and Economics of Faba Bean (Vicia faba L.) use of Lime, Blended Fertilizer, Biofertilizer And Compost on Acid Soils of High Lands in West Showa Zone of Ethiopia. Int. J. of Current Research. Vol. 9 (4). pp. 67-76.
40. Zhang. N. N., Sun. Y. M., Li. L., Wang. E. T, Chen. W. X. and Yuan. H. L. 2010. Effects of intercropping and Rhizobium inoculation on yield and rhizosphere Bacterial community of faba bean (Vicia faba L.). Biol Fertil Soils Vol. 46, pp. 625–639.
41. Zhen. Z., Liu. H., Wang. N., Guo. L., Ding. N., Wu. G and Jiang. 2014. Effects of Manure Compost Application on Soil Microbial Community Diversity and Soil Microenvironments in a Temperate Cropland in China. Vol. 9 (10).