Frontiers in Environmental Microbiology

Submit a Manuscript

Publishing with us to make your research visible to the widest possible audience.

Propose a Special Issue

Building a community of authors and readers to discuss the latest research and develop new ideas.

Lymphocystis Disease Virus in Largemouth Bass - A Case Report

Lymphocystis disease caused by the lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV) infects numerous fish species including wild and farmed fish from several families. The LCDV is a DNA virus belonging to the family Iridoviridae. The virus usually causes benign, chronic infection characterized by macroscopic nodules located on the body, fins, and gills of fish, although other tissues may be infected occasionally. The disease normally does not cause significant mortalities, but massive infections leading to substantial mortalities have been reported in some aquacultured species such as sea bream (Sparus aurata), Olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus), Japanese seabass (Lateolabrax japonicus), and rockfish (Sebastes schlegeli). In this study, nodules from the fins of a largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) were subjected to pathological examination. Microscopic analysis of the wet mount and the histological analysis revealed the pathological alterations caused by the lymphocystis disease virus. Histopathological analysis indicated that the nodules contained encapsulated hypertrophic cells typical of the viral infection. The inoculum from the fin nodules produced cytopathic effects (CPEs) on Bluegill Fry (BF-2) cells, while no CPEs were observed in the Epithelioma Papulosum Cyprini (EPC) and Fathead Minnow (FHM) cell lines. These findings suggest that the causative agent of the fin infection in the largemouth bass is lymphocystis disease virus.

Lymphocystis Disease Virus, Largemouth Bass, Nodules, Histopathology, Cytopathic Effects

APA Style

Suja Aarattuthodi. (2023). Lymphocystis Disease Virus in Largemouth Bass - A Case Report. Frontiers in Environmental Microbiology, 9(2), 18-23. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.fem.20230902.11

ACS Style

Suja Aarattuthodi. Lymphocystis Disease Virus in Largemouth Bass - A Case Report. Front. Environ. Microbiol. 2023, 9(2), 18-23. doi: 10.11648/j.fem.20230902.11

AMA Style

Suja Aarattuthodi. Lymphocystis Disease Virus in Largemouth Bass - A Case Report. Front Environ Microbiol. 2023;9(2):18-23. doi: 10.11648/j.fem.20230902.11

Copyright © 2023 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

1. Wolf, K. (1988). Chapter 22. Lymphocystis disease. In Fish Viruses and Fish Viral Diseases. Pp. 268-291. Cornell University Press. Ithaca, NY.
2. Anders, K. (1989). Lymphocystis disease of fishes. Viruses of Lower Vertebrates 141-160.
3. Marcogliese, D. J, Fournier M, Lacroix A, & Cyr D. G. (2001). Non-specific immune response associated with infections of lymphocystis disease virus in American plaice, Hippoglossoides platessoides (Fabricius). Journal of Fish Diseases, 24, 121-124.
4. Iwamoto, R., Hasegawa O., LaPatra S. & Yoshimizu M. (2002). Isolation and characterization of the Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) lymphocystis disease virus. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health, 14, 114-123.
5. Cheng, S., Zhan W., Xing J., & Sheng X. (2006). Development and characterization of monoclonal antibody to the lymphocystis disease virus of Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus isolated from China. Journal of Virology Methods, 135, 173-180.
6. Noga, E. J. (2010). Problem 40. Lymphocystis. In Fish disease: diagnosis and treatment. 2nd edition. Wiley-Blackwell. Ames, Iowa. Pp. 171-173.
7. Xu, L., Feng J., & Huang Y. (2014). Identification of lymphocystis disease virus from paradise fish Macropodus opercularis (LCDVPF). Archives of Virology, 159, 2445-2449.
8. Huang, X, Huang Y, Xu L, Wei S, Ouyang Z, & Feng J. (2015). Identification and characterization of a novel lymphocystis disease virus isolate from cultured grouper in China. Journal of Fish Diseases, 38, 379-387.
9. Doszpoly, A., G. L. Kaján, R. Puentes, & A. Perretta. (2020). Complete Genome Sequence and Analysis of a Novel Lymphocystivirus Detected in Whitemouth Croaker (Micropogonias Furnieri): Lymphocystis Disease Virus 4. Archives of Virology 165 (5), 1215–18.
10. Perretta, A., Doszpoly, A., Puentes, R., & Bessonart, M. (2020). Diagnosis of lymphocystis disease in a novel host, the whitemouth croaker Micropogonias furnieri, associated with a putatively novel Lymphocystivirus species (LCDV-WC). Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 137, 185-193.
11. Kelly, D. C. & Robertson, J. S. (1973). Icosahedral cytoplasmic deoxyriboviruses. J. Gen Virol. 20, 17 - 41.
12. Fenner, F. (1976). Classification and nomenclature of viruses. Second report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. S. Karger; Basel, London.
13. Alonso, M. C., Cano I., Garcia-Rosado E., Castro D., Lamas J., Barja J. L. & Borrego J. J. (2005). Isolation of lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV) from sole, Solea senegalensis Kaup, and blackspot sea bream, Pagellus bogaraveo (Brünnich). Journal of Fish Diseases, 28, 221-228.
14. Sheng, X. Z, Zhan W. B., & Wang Y. (2007). White spotter puffer Arothron hispidus, a new host for lymphocystis in Qingdao Aquarium of China. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 75, 23-28.
15. Paperna, I, Vilenkin., & de Matos A. P. (2001). Iridovirus infections in farm-reared tropical ornamental fish. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 48, 17-25.
16. Menezes, J., Ramos M. A., & Oereira T. G. (1987). Lymphocystis disease: an outbreak in Sparus aurata from Ria Formosa, south coast of Portugal. Aquaculture, 67, 222-225.
17. Basurco, A., Tiana A., Castellanos J. V., & Tarazona M. J. (1990). First report of lymphocystis disease in Sparus aurata (Linnaeus) in Spain. Bull. Eur. Assoc. Fish Pathology, 10, 71-73.
18. Moate, R. M., Harris J. E., & McMahon S. (1992). Lymphocystis infections in cultured gilt-head sea bream (Sparus aurata) in the Aegean Sea. Bull. Eur. Assoc. Fish Pathology, 12, 134-136.
19. Le Deuff, R. M., & Renault T. (1993). Lymphocystis outbreaks in farmed sea bream, Sparus aurata, first report on French Mediterranean. Bull. Eur. Assoc. Fish Pathology, 13, 130-133.
20. Garcia-Rosado, E., Castro, D., Rodriguez, S., Perez-prieto, S. I., & Borrego, J. J. (1999). Isolation and characterization of lymphocystis virus (FLDV) from gilt-head sea bream (Sparus aurata, L.) using a new homologous cell line. Bull. Eur. Ass. Fish Pathology, 19, 53-56.
21. Berthiaume, L, Alain R., & Robin J. (1984). Morphology and ultrastructure of lymphocystis disease virus, a fish iridovirus, grown in tissue culture. Virology, 135, 10-19.
22. Tidona, C. A., & Darai G. (1999). Lymphocystis disease virus (Iridoviridae). In: Encyclopedia of Virology (ed. by A. Granoff & R. G. Webster), pp. 908– 911. Academic Press, New York.
23. Kitamura, S. I., Jung S. J., Kim W. S., Nishizawa T., Yoshimizu M., & Oh M. J. (2006a). A new genotype of lymphocystivirus, LCD-RF, from lymphocystis disease rockfish. Archives of Virology, 151, 607-615.
24. Tidona, C. A., & Darai G. (1997). The complete DNA sequence of lymphocystis disease virus. Virology, 230, 353-362.
25. Zhang, Q. Y., Xiao, F., Xie, J., Li, Z. Q., & Gui, J. F. (2004). Complete genome sequence of lymphocystis disease virus isolated from China. Journal of Virology, 78, 6982-6994.
26. Jancovich, J. K., Chinchar, V. G., Hyatt, A., Miyazaki, T., Williams, T., & Zhang, Q. Y. (2012). Family Iridoviridae. In: King, A. M. Q., Adams, M. J., Carstens, E. B., Lefkowitz, E. J. (Eds.), Virus Taxonomy, Ninth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Elsevier Academic Press, San Diego, CA.
27. Cano, I., Ferro P., Alonso M. C., Bergmann S. M., Romer-Oberdorfer A., Garcia R. E., Castro D., & Borrego J. J. (2006a). Development of molecular techniques for detection of lymphocystis disease virus in different marine fish species. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 102, 32-40.
28. Nigrelli, R. F., & Smith G. M. (1939). Studies on lymphocystis disease in the orange filefish, Ceratacanthus schoepfi (Walbaum) from Sandy Hook Bay, New Jersey. Zoologica 24, 255-264.
29. Roberts, R. J., & Ellis, A. E. (2012). The anatomy and physiology of teleosts. In: Roberts, R. J. (Ed.), Fish Pathology. fourth ed Wiley-Blackwell, Ames, pp. 17–61.
30. Pritchard, H. N. & Malsberger, R. G. (1968). A cytochemical study of lymphocystis tumor cells in vivo. J. exp. Zoology. 169, 371-380.
31. Samalecos, C. P. (1986). Analysis of the structure of fish lymphocystis disease virions from skin tumors of Pleuronectes. Archives of Virology, 91, 1-10.
32. Ferguson, H. W. (2006). Skin. In: Ferguson, H. W. (Ed.), Systemic Pathology of Fish. second ed. Scotian Press, London, pp. 65–89.
33. Paperna, I., Sabnai I., & Colorni A. (1982). An outbreak of lymphocystis in Sparus aurata L. in the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea. Journal of Fish Diseases, 5, 433-437.
34. Kitamura, S. I., Ko J. Y., Lee W. L., Kim S. R., Song J. Y., Kim D. K., Jung S. J. & Oh M. J. (2007). Seasonal prevalence of lymphocystis disease virus and aquabirnavirus in Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, and blue mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis. Aquaculture, 266, 26-31.
35. Cano, I, Valverde E. J., Lopez-Jimena B., Alonso M. C., & Garcia-Rosado E. (2010). A new genotype of Lymphocystivirus isolated from cultured gilthead seabream, Sparus aurata L., and Senegalese sole, Solea senegalensis (Kaup). Journal of Fish Diseases, 33, 695-700.
36. Dezfuli, B. S., Lui A., Giari L., CastaldelliMulero V., & Noga E. J. (2012). Infiltration and activation of acidophilic granulocytes in skin lesions of gilthead seabream, Sparus aurata, naturally infected with lymphocystis disease virus. Dev Comp Immunol 36, 174-182.
37. Haddad-Boubaker, S., Bouzgarou N., FakhfakhE, Khayech M., & Ben Mohamed S. (2013). Detection and Genetic Characterization of Lymphocystis Disease Virus (LCDV) Isolated during Disease Outbreaks in Cultured Gilt-head Sea Bream Sparus aurata in Tunisia. Fish Pathology, 48, 101-104.
38. Oh, M. J., Kitamura S. I., Kim W. S., Park M. K., Jung S. J., Miyadai T., & Ohtani M. (2006). Susceptibility of marine fish species to a megalocytivirus, turbot iridovirus, isolated from turbot, Psetta maximus (L.). Journal of Fish Diseases, 29, 415-421.
39. Colorni, A., & Padros, F. (2011). Diseases and health management. In: Pavlidis, M. A., Mylonas, C. C. (Eds.), Sparidae: Biology and Aquaculture of Gilthead Sea Bream and Other Species. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, pp. 321-357.
40. Schnitzler, P., & Darai G. (1993). Identification of the gene encoding the major capsid protein from fish lymphocystis disease virus. Journal of General Virology, 74, 2143-2150.
41. Tidona, C. A., Schnitzler P., Kehm R., & Darai G. (1998). Is the major capsid protein of iridoviruses a suitable target for the study of viral evolution? Virus Genes, 16, 59-66.
42. Hanson, L. A., Rudis M. R., Vasques-Lee M., & Montgomery R. D. (2006). A broadly applicable method to characterize large DNA viruses and adenoviruses based on the DNA polymerase gene. Journal of Virology, 11 (3), 8.
43. Hossain, M., Song J. Y, Kitamura S. I, Jung S. J, & Oh M. J. (2008). Phylogenetic analysis of lymphocystis disease virus from tropical ornamental fish species based on a major capsid protein gene. Journal of Fish Diseases, 31, 473-479.
44. Weber ES, III, Waltzek TB, Young DA, Twitchell EL, Gates AE, Vagelli A, Risatti GR, Hedrick RP, & Frasca S., Jr. (2009). Systemic iridovirus infection in the Banggai cardinalfish (Pterapogon kauderni Koumans 1933). J Vet Diagn Invest, 21, 306–320.
45. Whittington R. J, Becker JA, & Dennis MM. (2010). Iridovirus infections in finfish: Critical review with emphasis on ranaviruses. Journal of Fish Diseases, 33, 95–122.
46. Kitamura, S. I., Jung S. J., & Oh M. J. (2006b). Differentiation of lymphocystis disease virus genotype by multiplex PCR. Journal of Microbiology, 44, 248-253.
47. Kvitt, H., Heinisch, G., & Diamant, A. (2008). Detection and phylogeny of Lymphocystis virus in sea bream Sparus aurata based on the DNA polymerase gene and major capsid protein sequences. Aquaculture, 275, 58-63.
48. Wolf, K., Gravell M., & Malsberger R. G. (1966). Lymphocystis virus: isolation and propagation in centrarchid fish cell lines. Science, 151, 1004-1005.
49. Wolf, K., & Carlson C. P. (1965). Multiplication of lymphocystis virus in the bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus). Ann NY Acad Sci 126, 414-419.
50. Nigrelli, R. F. (1940). Mortality statistics for specimens in the New York aquarium, 1939. Zoologica, 25, 525-552.
51. Palmer, L. J., Hogan N. S., & Van den Heuvel M. R. (2012). Phylogenetic analysis and molecular methods for the detection of lymphocystis disease virus from yellow perch, Perca flavescens (Mitchell). Journal of Fish Diseases, 35, 661-670.